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Conduct of Security Personnel during the Bayelsa and Kogi 2019 Governorship Elections in Nigeria

Conduct of Security Personnel during the Bayelsa and Kogi 2019 Governorship Elections in Nigeria

For Immediate Release
Tuesday 19th November 2019
7:00 am
Abuja – Nigeria

The 2019 Governorship Elections for Bayelsa and Kogi states which held on Saturday 16th of November, 2019 were conducted by the Independent National Electoral Commission (INEC). In securing the elections and voters, the Nigeria Police Force (NPF) deployed a total of 35,200 Police personnel in Kogi while in Bayelsa, it deployed 31,041 personnel respectively for both states. INEC equally trained the personnel of the Nigeria Police in preparation for the elections. At the various observers’ briefings held in Bayelsa and Kogi states respectively, the Nigeria Police Force further confirmed their readiness for the elections through securing lives and providing a conducive environment for voters to cast their votes. The Inspector General of Police issued a warning to potential electoral offenders to desist from any planned acts to disrupt the electoral process.

CLEEN Foundation recruited and trained a total of 61 INEC accredited election observers drawn across each of the Local Government Areas in Bayelsa and Kogi states respectively. The observers were trained to receive and report the conduct of security personnel posted at the polling units with the aid of a real time technology platform “Tella App” following a range of criteria on CLEEN Foundation’s standardized checklist developed and revised in partnership with the Police Service Commission (PSC). The PSC guideline for the conduct of Police personnel on election duty provides for the following key criteria: alertness, professionalism, use of force, approachability, maintenance of impartiality, knowledge of electoral laws, communication, reporting, and wearing easily identifiable name tags among others.

These criteria and many more were tailored into measurable indicators in the CLEEN Foundation checklist to observe the conduct of security personnel during elections. CLEEN Foundation set up an Election Security Support Centre (ESSC) in Abuja to coordinate the reports from the Bayelsa and Kogi states respectively during the elections. The ESSC escalated reported incidents to the appropriate authorities (NPF and INEC) for prompt interventions.

Findings on the conduct of security personnel deployed for election duty:

1. The arrival of Security Personnel at the Polling Units: CLEEN Foundation observers recorded 58% early arrival, before 8:00 am and 42% late arrival after 8:00 am at the polling units by the security personnel on election duty. The late arrivals were recorded in both states respectively.
2. Presence of Security Personnel at the Polling Unit and Possession of Fire Arm: CLEEN observers observed the presence of three or more security personnel in 92% of the polling units covered with the majority of them unarmed at the polling units. Some of the armed personnel were seen on the road and some meters away from the polling units. The observers recorded two or less number of security personnel in 8% of the polling units covered during the election across all the LGAs in Kogi and Bayelsa states respectively.
3. Adequacy of the Number of Security Personnel at the Polling unit: CLEEN Foundation observed 77% adequacy of the number of security personnel in all the polling units observed and 23% inadequacy of the number of the security personnel in the polling units.
4. Wearing of Name Tags by Security Personnel: CLEEN Foundation observers noted that most of the security personnel were wearing easily identifiable name tags at the polling units while few were not wearing name tags/covering their name tags. This was observed in both Bayelsa and Kogi states respectively.
5. Approachability of Security Personnel: The accredited observers deployed by CLEEN Foundation noted that the majority of the security personnel at the polling units were approachable and few of the security personnel somewhat approachable during the elections.
6. Maintenance of Impartiality: The CLEEN observers noted that most of the security personnel at the polling unit were impartial and few were not impartial at all during the elections across the polling units observed in all the LGA areas in Bayelsa and Kogi state respectively.
7. Feeling of Safety at the Polling Units: The observers noted that the majority of the voters at the polling units felt safe and secure. Generally, CLEEN observers noted that voters in Bayelsa state felt safe and secure more than voters in Kogi state.
8. Incidents of Threat to Security at the Polling unit: A total of 30% of CLEEN Foundation observers reported that there were threats to security at the polling units in both Kogi and Bayelsa States. In some instances, heavily armed political thugs invaded polling units and destroyed or carted away voting materials without a response from the security agencies deployed for election duty.
9. Use of Force: CLEEN Foundation accredited observers noted that most of the security personnel did not use force at anyone in the polling units observed. This explains the situation of no resistance by political thugs in shooting and snatching ballot boxes in Bayelsa and Kogi states respectively.
10. Professional Conduct of Security Personnel at the Polling Unit: Generally, CLEEN Foundation recorded poor conduct of the security personnel in the face of violence and insecurity during the elections in Bayelsa and Kogi states. The security personnel were unable to manage/prevent thugs and men on security uniforms in Kogi state especially from disrupting elections and carting away voting materials.
General observation and incident reports during the election
i. Killings/Deaths Recorded: Two persons were reportedly killed in Kogi State on the day of the election in Lokoja LGA of Kogi State. Prior to the elections, there were various reports of killings in the two states.
ii. Ballot Box Snatching: Several incidents of ballot box snatching were recorded in Bayelsa and Kogi States respectively. For instance, in PU 20, Etegwe Primary School, Ward 5 in Yenegoa LGA of Bayelsa State, the ballot box was snatched at the end of voting with no resistance from the security personnel at the polling unit.
iii. Vote Trading: CLEEN Foundation observed massive and well-coordinated vote buying and selling in Bayelsa and Kogi states respectively. The security personnel on election duty appeared indifferent while the vote trading lasted.
iv. Missing Names on Voters Register: CLEEN Foundation observed a situation where the names of voters were missing from the voters register although the voters had their Permanent Voters Card. This was observed at Polling Unit 009, Ward 9 at Kolokuma/Opokuma Local Government Area of Bayelsa State.
v. Late Arrival of Election Materials: There were incidents of late arrival of voting materials across the two states. For instance, in PU 012, Ward 6 in Brass LGA of Bayelsa State INEC personnel arrived late.
vi. Late Court Judgments: Judicial pronouncement close to the election day in Bayelsa State heightened tension and caused a lot of confusion among the electorates.

Conclusion and Recommendations:
The 2019 Bayelsa and Kogi States governorship elections have been conducted with various developments that call for serious concern. The outcome of the elections has implications for election security management and the sustenance of democracy in Nigeria. CLEEN Foundation is worried and concerned that key stakeholders such as Politicians, INEC and security agencies have not taken lessons from previous elections in preparation for the just concluded gubernatorial elections. This explains the reoccurrence of past issues/lapses and problems associated with the management of elections in Nigeria on the part of INEC and security agencies. It appears that we are retrogressing rather than building on the electoral gains made in the past.

In light of the developments from the recently concluded elections, we make the following recommendations to enhance the integrity of the electoral process and in deepening democracy in Nigeria:

1. Security agencies deployed for election duty should investigate and arrest all those responsible for the electoral violence unleashed on voters by political thugs in Bayelsa and Kogi States.
2. INEC should prioritize the prosecution of all electoral offenders in line with section 150 of the electoral act to serve as a deterrent in future elections.
3. Federal government should commence the process of amending the Electoral Act 2010 (as amended) in preparation for off-cycle elections and the 2023 general elections. Key provisions should include the establishment of an Electoral Offences Commission and criminalization of vote trading.
4. INEC should consider and implement electronic voting to reduce physical contact with election materials for future elections to reduce electoral violence.
5. Electoral reforms should prioritize holding accountable politicians that have remained the greatest security threat to democracy in Nigeria.
6. INEC and stakeholders should harmonize and standardize training modules on Election Security Management to be used to train security personnel ahead of elections.
7. The Police Service Commission and other oversight agencies should ensure that security agents deployed for election duty are duly debriefed and those found wanting should be held accountable for their actions or inactions during the elections in Bayelsa and Kogi elections.
8. The Federal Government of Nigeria should provide an enabling environment that enables citizens to exercise their franchise without fear of bodily harm. It is unacceptable that citizens will go to polling units without assurance of their safety or security.  

May God bless the Federal Republic of Nigeria

Benson Olugbuo, Ph.D
Executive Director
CLEEN Foundation

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